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August 2015

Volume 1 Issue 1
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 Editorial

 Perceptions of Human Tuberculosis Vaccine: The Fiocruz Latest Contribution

 Paulo RZ Antas*

 As globally reported, tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death worldwide, with increased burden mainly in developing countries. The Stop TB Partnership goals embrace dropping the global TB burden by half in 2015 and eliminating TB as a public health problem by 2050. As an ancient microbe highly adapted to the host, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects humans through an;oral route. TB can be caught by persons that inhale droplets containing the bacteria when an infected person coughs or sneezes. But the majority of these infected subjects will remain asymptomatic.

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 Research Article

 Association of Serum Antibody Levels Following Vaccination with A Modified Live BVDV Vaccine and Protection from Clinical Disease upon Challenge

 Shollie M. Falkenberg*, PhD, Julia F. Ridpath, PhD, Richard G. Tait, Jr, PhD, Brian L. Vander Ley, DVM, PhD, Fernando V. Bauermann, PhD, and James M. Reecy, PhD

 Two studies were conducted to examine the range of virus neutralizing serum antibody (VNSA) response after vaccination with a modified-live viral vaccine in cattle and the level of protection elicited when subsequently challenged with a highly virulent type 2 BVDV. Study 1 examined responses in colostrum deprived (CD) calves with no passively acquired antibodies whereas Study 2 examined responses in conventionally raised (CR) calves which had varying levels of passive antibodies prior to vaccination. Study 1 used CD calves averaging 120 days of age. 

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 Research Article

 Toxicities Associated with Antibody Drug Conjugates

 Timothy Allen, MD, Ph.D1, Giridhar M.N.V, MD,MBA*, Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi MD*

 Conventional chemotherapeutic agents, in the treatment of several cancers, lack specificity, resulting in toxicities to normal tissues and poor therapeutic index. Antibody-based immunoconjugates are specifically targeted monoclonal antibodies that deliver the cytotoxic agent to the target cell. When the cytotoxic agent used, is a highly potent drug, such molecules are referred to as antibody-drug conjugates. This represents a promising approach to enhance the efficacy of unconjugated antibodies for improved therapeutics and decreased toxicities.

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 Review Article

 Safety and Efficacy of Peptide Based Vaccines

 Timothy Allen, MD, Ph.D, Giridhar M.N.V, MD,MBA*, Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi MD*

 Vaccination or Immunization is a standout amongst the best open wellbeing mediations. Traditional immunizations comprise of lessened or inactivated pathogens. There are a heaps of issues connected with accepted immunizations, for example, risk of contamination, hypersensitivities and immune system reactions, producing challenges, and instability have provoked the enthusiasm toward the improvement of protected and compelling subunit based antibody. A subunit vaccine is characterized as an immunization which holds just the negligible microbial parts

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 Short Review

 Vaccinia Virus: It’s Use in Smallpox Vaccine and Epidemiology

 Marina Gea Peres, Jane Megid*

 Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype of Orthopoxvirus, was widely used in Smallpox vaccines in Brazil during the world vaccination campaign of Word Health Organization. But the history of Smallpox vaccines began with finds of Edward Jenner. The finds of Edward Jenner was later named immunological cross-reaction of Orthopoxvirus genus. These Orthopoxvirus properties allow the use of VACV in Smallpox vaccines.

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 Research Article

 Comparison of the Mucosal Adjuvant Endocine™ with Two Well-Known Adjuvants: Cholera Toxin and Alum

 Tina Falkeborn*, Naomi Asahara, Masayuki Hayashi, Masaaki Arai, Jorma Hinkula and Anna-Karin Maltais

To enable efficient mucosal vaccination with split or subunit antigens, an adjuvant is often needed. To date, no mucosal adjuvants are approved for human use, however, there are a variety of mucosal adjuvants in development, including the liposome- based adjuvant Endocine™. The aim of this study was to evaluate split influenza antigens together with Endocine™ and in order to assess the potency of Endocine™, the induction of humoral immune responses were compared to those following influenza vaccination with cholera toxin (CT) or aluminum salt (alum). We show that Endocine™ significantly enhances influenza-specific immune responses in intranasally immunized mice compared to non-adjuvanted vaccine.

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